Impression of these Narratives upon the Author's mind--Pastor invited to give account of certain Graves that lie apart-- Clergyman and his Family--Fortunate influence of change of situation--Activity in extreme old age--Another Clergyman, a character of resolute Virtue--Lamentations over misdirected applause--Instance of less exalted excellence in a deaf man-- Elevated character of a blind man--Reflection upon Blindness-- Interrupted by a Peasant who passes--His animal cheerfulness and careless vivacity--He occasions a digression on the fall of beautiful and interesting Trees--A female Infant's Grave--Joy at her Birth--Sorrow at her Departure--A youthful Peasant--His patriotic enthusiasm and distinguished qualities--His untimely death--Exultation of the Wanderer, as a patriot, in this Picture-- Solitary how affected--Monument of a Knight--Traditions concerning him--Peroration of the Wanderer on the transitoriness of things and the revolutions of society--Hints at his own past Calling-- Thanks the Pastor.


          WHILE thus from theme to theme the Historian passed,
          The words he uttered, and the scene that lay
          Before our eyes, awakened in my mind
          Vivid remembrance of those long-past hours;
          When, in the hollow of some shadowy vale,
          (What time the splendour of the setting sun
          Lay beautiful on Snowdon's sovereign brow,
          On Cader Idris, or huge Penmanmaur)
          A wandering Youth, I listened with delight
          To pastoral melody or warlike air,                          10
          Drawn from the chords of the ancient British harp
          By some accomplished Master, while he sate
          Amid the quiet of the green recess,
          And there did inexhaustibly dispense
          An interchange of soft or solemn tunes,
          Tender or blithe; now, as the varying mood
          Of his own spirit urged,--now, as a voice
          From youth or maiden, or some honoured chief
          Of his compatriot villagers (that hung
          Around him, drinking in the impassioned notes               20
          Of the time-hallowed minstrelsy) required
          For their heart's ease or pleasure. Strains of power
          Were they, to seize and occupy the sense;
          But to a higher mark than song can reach
          Rose this pure eloquence. And, when the stream
          Which overflowed the soul was passed away,
          A consciousness remained that it had left,
          Deposited upon the silent shore
          Of memory, images and precious thoughts,
          That shall not die, and cannot be destroyed.                30

            "These grassy heaps lie amicably close,"
          Said I, "like surges heaving in the wind
          Along the surface of a mountain pool:
          Whence comes it, then, that yonder we behold
          Five graves, and only five, that rise together
          Unsociably sequestered, and encroaching
          On the smooth playground of the village-school?"

            The Vicar answered,--"No disdainful pride
          In them who rest beneath, nor any course
          Of strange or tragic accident, hath helped                  40
          To place those hillocks in that lonely guise.
          --Once more look forth, and follow with your sight
          The length of road that from yon mountain's base
          Through bare enclosures stretches, 'till its line
          Is lost within a little tuft of trees;
          Then, reappearing in a moment, quits
          The cultured fields; and up the heathy waste,
          Mounts, as you see, in mazes serpentine,
          Led towards an easy outlet of the vale.
          That little shady spot, that sylvan tuft,                   50
          By which the road is hidden, also hides
          A cottage from our view; though I discern
          (Ye scarcely can) amid its sheltering trees
          The smokeless chimney-top.--
                                        All unembowered
          And naked stood that lowly Parsonage
          (For such in truth it is, and appertains
          To a small Chapel in the vale beyond)
          When hither came its last Inhabitant.
          Rough and forbidding were the choicest roads
          By which our northern wilds could then be crossed;          60
          And into most of these secluded vales
          Was no access for wain, heavy or light.
          So, at his dwelling-place the Priest arrived
          With store of household goods, in panniers slung
          On sturdy horses graced with jingling bells,
          And on the back of more ignoble beast;
          That, with like burthen of effects most prized
          Or easiest carried, closed the motley train.
          Young was I then, a schoolboy of eight years;
          But still, methinks, I see them as they passed              70
          In order, drawing toward their wished-for home.
          --Rocked by the motion of a trusty ass
          Two ruddy children hung, a well-poised freight,
          Each in his basket nodding drowsily;
          Their bonnets, I remember, wreathed with flowers,
          Which told it was the pleasant month of June;
          And, close behind, the comely Matron rode,
          A woman of soft speech and gracious smile,
          And with a lady's mien.--From far they came,
          Even from Northumbrian hills; yet theirs had been           80
          A merry journey, rich in pastime, cheered
          By music, prank, and laughter-stirring jest;
          And freak put on, and arch word dropped--to swell
          The cloud of fancy and uncouth surmise
          That gathered round the slowly-moving train.
          --'Whence do they come? and with what errand charged?
          'Belong they to the fortune-telling tribe
          'Who pitch their tents under the greenwood tree?
          'Or Strollers are they, furnished to enact
          'Fair Rosamond, and the Children of the Wood,               90
          'And, by that whiskered tabby's aid, set forth
          'The lucky venture of sage Whittington,
          'When the next village hears the show announced
          'By blast of trumpet?' Plenteous was the growth
          Of such conjectures, overheard, or seen
          On many a staring countenance portrayed
          Of boor or burgher, as they marched along.
          And more than once their steadiness of face
          Was put to proof, and exercise supplied
          To their inventive humour, by stern looks,                 100
          And questions in authoritative tone,
          From some staid guardian of the public peace,
          Checking the sober steed on which he rode,
          In his suspicious wisdom; oftener still,
          By notice indirect, or blunt demand
          From traveller halting in his own despite,
          A simple curiosity to ease:
          Of which adventures, that beguiled and cheered
          Their grave migration, the good pair would tell,
          With undiminished glee, in hoary age.                      110

            A Priest he was by function; but his course
          From his youth up, and high as manhood's noon,
          (The hour of life to which he then was brought)
          Had been irregular, I might say, wild;
          By books unsteadied, by his pastoral care
          Too little checked. An active, ardent mind;
          A fancy pregnant with resource and scheme
          To cheat the sadness of a rainy day;
          Hands apt for all ingenious arts and games;
          A generous spirit, and a body strong                       120
          To cope with stoutest champions of the bowl--
          Had earned for him sure welcome, and the rights
          Of a prized visitant, in the jolly hall
          Of country 'squire; or at the statelier board
          Of duke or earl, from scenes of courtly pomp
          Withdrawn,--to while away the summer hours
          In condescension among rural guests.

            With these high comrades he had revelled long,
          Frolicked industriously, a simple Clerk
          By hopes of coming patronage beguiled                      130
          Till the heart sickened. So, each loftier aim
          Abandoning and all his showy friends,
          For a life's stay (slender it was, but sure)
          He turned to this secluded chapelry;
          That had been offered to his doubtful choice
          By an unthought-of patron. Bleak and bare
          They found the cottage, their allotted home;
          Naked without, and rude within; a spot
          With which the Cure not long had been endowed:
          And far remote the chapel stood,--remote,                  140
          And, from his Dwelling, unapproachable,
          Save through a gap high in the hills, an opening
          Shadeless and shelterless, by driving showers
          Frequented, and beset with howling winds.
          Yet cause was none, whate'er regret might hang
          On his own mind, to quarrel with the choice
          Or the necessity that fixed him here;
          Apart from old temptations, and constrained
          To punctual labour in his sacred charge.
          See him a constant preacher to the poor!                   150
          And visiting, though not with saintly zeal,
          Yet, when need was, with no reluctant will,
          The sick in body, or distrest in mind;
          And, by a salutary change, compelled
          To rise from timely sleep, and meet the day
          With no engagement, in his thoughts, more proud
          Or splendid than his garden could afford,
          His fields, or mountains by the heath-cock ranged
          Or the wild brooks; from which he now returned
          Contented to partake the quiet meal                        160
          Of his own board, where sat his gentle Mate
          And three fair Children, plentifully fed
          Though simply, from their little household farm;
          Nor wanted timely treat of fish or fowl
          By nature yielded to his practised hand;--
          To help the small but certain comings-in
          Of that spare benefice. Yet not the less
          Theirs was a hospitable board, and theirs
          A charitable door.
                              So days and years
          Passed on;--the inside of that rugged house                170
          Was trimmed and brightened by the Matron's care,
          And gradually enriched with things of price,
          Which might be lacked for use or ornament.
          What, though no soft and costly sofa there
          Insidiously stretched out its lazy length,
          And no vain mirror glittered upon the walls,
          Yet were the windows of the low abode
          By shutters weather-fended, which at once
          Repelled the storm and deadened its loud roar.
          There snow-white curtains hung in decent folds;            180
          Tough moss, and long-enduring mountain plants,
          That creep along the ground with sinuous trail,
          Were nicely braided; and composed a work
          Like Indian mats, that with appropriate grace
          Lay at the threshold and the inner doors;
          And a fair carpet, woven of homespun wool
          But tinctured daintily with florid hues,
          For seemliness and warmth, on festal days,
          Covered the smooth blue slabs of mountain-stone
          With which the parlour-floor, in simplest guise            190
          Of pastoral homesteads, had been long inlaid.

            Those pleasing works the Housewife's skill produced:
          Meanwhile the unsedentary Master's hand
          Was busier with his task--to rid, to plant,
          To rear for food, for shelter, and delight;
          A thriving covert! And when wishes, formed
          In youth, and sanctioned by the riper mind,
          Restored me to my native valley, here
          To end my days; well pleased was I to see
          The once-bare cottage, on the mountainside,                200
          Screened from assault of every bitter blast;
          While the dark shadows of the summer leaves
          Danced in the breeze, chequering its mossy roof.
          Time, which had thus afforded willing help
          To beautify with nature's fairest growths
          This rustic tenement, had gently shed,
          Upon its Master's frame, a wintry grace;
          The comeliness of unenfeebled age.

            But how could I say, gently? for he still
          Retained a flashing eye, a burning palm,                   210
          A stirring foot, a head which beat at nights
          Upon its pillow with a thousand schemes.
          Few likings had he dropped, few pleasures lost;
          Generous and charitable, prompt to serve;
          And still his harsher passions kept their hold--
          Anger and indignation. Still he loved
          The sound of titled names, and talked in glee
          Of long-past banquetings with high-born friends:
          Then, from those lulling fits of vain delight
          Uproused by recollected injury, railed                     220
          At their false ways disdainfully,--and oft
          In bitterness, and with a threatening eye
          Of fire, incensed beneath its hoary brow.
          --Those transports, with staid looks of pure good-will,
          And with soft smile, his consort would reprove.
          She, far behind him in the race of years,
          Yet keeping her first mildness, was advanced
          Far nearer, in the habit of her soul,
          To that still region whither all are bound,
          Him might we liken to the setting sun                      230
          As seen not seldom on some gusty day,
          Struggling and bold, and shining from the west
          With an inconstant and unmellowed light;
          She was a soft attendant cloud, that hung
          As if with wish to veil the restless orb;
          From which it did itself imbibe a ray
          Of pleasing lustre.--But no more of this;
          I better love to sprinkle on the sod
          That now divides the pair, or rather say,
          That still unites them, praises, like heaven's dew,        240
          Without reserve descending upon both.

            Our very first in eminence of years
          This old Man stood, the patriarch of the Vale!
          And, to his unmolested mansion, death
          Had never come, through space of forty years;
          Sparing both old and young in that abode.
          Suddenly then they disappeared: not twice
          Had summer scorched the fields; not twice had fallen,
          On those high peaks, the first autumnal snow,
          Before the greedy visiting was closed,                     250
          And the long-privileged house left empty--swept
          As by a plague. Yet no rapacious plague
          Had been among them; all was gentle death,
          One after one, with intervals of peace.
          A happy consummation! an accord
          Sweet, perfect, to be wished for! save that here
          Was something which to mortal sense might sound
          Like harshness,--that the old grey-headed Sire,
          The oldest, he was taken last; survived
          When the meek Partner of his age, his Son,                 260
          His Daughter, and that late and high-prized gift,
          His little smiling Grandchild, were no more.

            'All gone all vanished! he deprived and bare,
          'How will he face the remnant of his life?
          'What will become of him?' we said, and mused
          In sad conjectures--'Shall we meet him now
          'Haunting with rod and line the craggy brooks?
          'Or shall we overhear him, as we pass,
          'Striving to entertain the lonely hours
          'With music?' (for he had not ceased to touch              270
          The harp or viol which himself had framed,
          For their sweet purposes, with perfect skill.)
          'What titles will he keep? will he remain
          'Musician, gardener, builder, mechanist,
          'A planter, and a rearer from the seed?
          'A man of hope and forward-looking mind
          'Even to the last!'--Such was he, unsubdued.
          But Heaven was gracious; yet a little while,
          And this Survivor, with his cheerful throng
          Of open projects, and his inward hoard                     280
          Of unsunned griefs, too many and too keen,
          Was overcome by unexpected sleep,
          In one blest moment. Like a shadow thrown
          Softly and lightly from a passing cloud,
          Death fell upon him, while reclined he lay
          For noontide solace on the summer grass,
          The warm lap of his mother earth: and so,
          Their lenient term of separation past,
          That family (whose graves you there behold)
          By yet a higher privilege once more                        290
          Were gathered to each other."
                                         Calm of mind
          And silence waited on these closing words;
          Until the Wanderer (whether moved by fear
          Lest in those passages of life were some
          That might have touched the sick heart of his Friend
          Too nearly, or intent to reinforce
          His own firm spirit in degree deprest
          By tender sorrow for our mortal state)
          Thus silence broke:--"Behold a thoughtless Man
          From vice and premature decay preserved                    300
          By useful habits, to a fitter soil
          Transplanted ere too late.--The hermit, lodged
          Amid the untrodden desert, tells his beads,
          With each repeating its allotted prayer,
          And thus divides and thus relieves the time;
          Smooth task, with 'his' compared, whose mind could string,
          Not scantily, bright minutes on the thread
          Of keen domestic anguish; and beguile
          A solitude, unchosen, unprofessed;
          Till gentlest death released him.
                                             Far from us             310
          Be the desire--too curiously to ask
          How much of this is but the blind result
          Of cordial spirits and vital temperament,
          And what to higher powers is justly due.
          But you, Sir, know that in a neighbouring vale
          A Priest abides before whose life such doubts
          Fall to the ground; whose gifts of nature lie
          Retired from notice, lost in attributes
          Of reason, honourably effaced by debts
          Which her poor treasure-house is content to owe,           320
          And conquest over her dominion gained,
          To which her frowardness must needs submit.
          In this one Man is shown a temperance--proof
          Against all trials; industry severe
          And constant as the motion of the day;
          Stern self-denial round him spread, with shade
          That might be deemed forbidding, did not there
          All generous feelings flourish and rejoice;
          Forbearance, charity in deed and thought,
          And resolution competent to take                           330
          Out of the bosom of simplicity
          All that her holy customs recommend,
          And the best ages of the world prescribe.
          --Preaching, administering, in every work
          Of his sublime vocation, in the walks
          Of worldly intercourse between man and man,
          And in his humble dwelling, he appears
          A labourer, with moral virtue girt,
          With spiritual graces, like a glory, crowned."

            "Doubt can be none," the Pastor said, "for whom          340
          This portraiture is sketched. The great, the good,
          The well-beloved, the fortunate, the wise,--
          These titles emperors and chiefs have borne,
          Honour assumed or given: and him, the WONDERFUL,
          Our simple shepherds, speaking from the heart,
          Deservedly have styled.--From his abode
          In a dependent chapelry that lies
          Behind yon hill, a poor and rugged wild,
          Which in his soul he lovingly embraced,
          And, having once espoused, would never quit;               350
          Into its graveyard will ere long be borne
          That lowly, great, good Man. A simple stone
          May cover him; and by its help, perchance,
          A century shall hear his name pronounced,
          With images attendant on the sound;
          Then, shall the slowly-gathering twilight close
          In utter night; and of his course remain
          No cognizable vestiges, no more
          Than of this breath, which shapes itself in words
          To speak of him, and instantly dissolves."                 360

            The Pastor, pressed by thoughts which round his theme
          Still lingered, after a brief pause, resumed;
          "Noise is there not enough in doleful war,
          But that the heaven-born poet must stand forth,
          And lend the echoes of his sacred shell,
          To multiply and aggravate the din?
          Pangs are there not enough in hopeless love--
          And, in requited passion, all too much
          Of turbulence, anxiety, and fear--
          But that the minstrel of the rural shade                   370
          Must tune his pipe, insidiously to nurse
          The perturbation in the suffering breast,
          And propagate its kind, far as he may?
          --Ah who (and with such rapture as befits
          The hallowed theme) will rise and celebrate
          The good man's purposes and deeds; retrace
          His struggles, his discomfitures deplore,
          His triumphs hail, and glorify his end;
          That virtue, like the fumes and vapoury clouds
          Through fancy's heat redounding in the brain,              380
          And like the soft infections of the heart,
          By charm of measured words may spread o'er field,
          Hamlet, and town; and piety survive
          Upon the lips of men in hall or bower;
          Not for reproof, but high and warm delight,
          And grave encouragement, by song inspired?
          --Vain thought! but wherefore murmur or repine?
          The memory of the just survives in heaven:
          And, without sorrow, will the ground receive
          That venerable clay. Meanwhile the best                    390
          Of what lies here confines us to degrees
          In excellence less difficult to reach,
          And milder worth: nor need we travel far
          From those to whom our last regards were paid,
          For such example.
                             Almost at the root
          Of that tall pine, the shadow of whose bare
          And slender stem, while here I sit at eve,
          Oft stretches towards me, like a long straight path
          Traced faintly in the greensward; there, beneath
          A plain blue stone, a gentle Dalesman lies,                400
          From whom, in early childhood, was withdrawn
          The precious gift of hearing. He grew up
          From year to year in loneliness of soul;
          And this deep mountain-valley was to him
          Soundless, with all its streams. The bird of dawn
          Did never rouse this Cottager from sleep
          With startling summons; not for his delight
          The vernal cuckoo shouted; not for him
          Murmured the labouring bee. When stormy winds
          Were working the broad bosom of the lake                   410
          Into a thousand thousand sparkling waves,
          Rocking the trees, or driving cloud on cloud
          Along the sharp edge of yon lofty crags,
          The agitated scene before his eye
          Was silent as a picture: evermore
          Were all things silent, wheresoe'er he moved.
          Yet, by the solace of his own pure thoughts
          Upheld, he duteously pursued the round
          Of rural labours; the steep mountain-side
          Ascended, with his staff and faithful dog;                 420
          The plough he guided, and the scythe he swayed;
          And the ripe corn before his sickle fell
          Among the jocund reapers. For himself,
          All watchful and industrious as he was,
          He wrought not: neither field nor flock he owned:
          No wish for wealth had place within his mind;
          Nor husband's love, nor father's hope or care.

            Though born a younger brother, need was none
          That from the floor of his paternal home
          He should depart, to plant himself anew.                   430
          And when, mature in manhood, he beheld
          His parents laid in earth, no loss ensued
          Of rights to him; but he remained well pleased,
          By the pure bond of independent love,
          An inmate of a second family;
          The fellow-labourer and friend of him
          To whom the small inheritance had fallen.
          --Nor deem that his mild presence was a weight
          That pressed upon his brother's house; for books
          Were ready comrades whom he could not tire;                440
          Of whose society the blameless Man
          Was never satiate. Their familiar voice,
          Even to old age, with unabated charm
          Beguiled his leisure hours; refreshed his thoughts;
          Beyond its natural elevation raised
          His introverted spirit; and bestowed
          Upon his life an outward dignity
          Which all acknowledged. The dark winter night,
          The stormy day, each had its own resource;
          Song of the muses, sage historic tale,                     450
          Science severe, or word of holy Writ
          Announcing immortality and joy
          To the assembled spirits of just men
          Made perfect, and from injury secure.
          --Thus soothed at home, thus busy in the field,
          To no perverse suspicion he gave way,
          No languor, peevishness, nor vain complaint:
          And they, who were about him, did not fail
          In reverence, or in courtesy; they prized
          His gentle manners: and his peaceful smiles,               460
          The gleams of his slow-varying countenance,
          Were met with answering sympathy and love.

            At length, when sixty years and five were told,
          A slow disease insensibly consumed
          The powers of nature: and a few short steps
          Of friends and kindred bore him from his home
          (Yon cottage shaded by the woody crags)
          To the profounder stillness of the grave.
          --Nor was his funeral denied the grace
          Of many tears, virtuous and thoughtful grief;              470
          Heart-sorrow rendered sweet by gratitude.
          And now that monumental stone preserves
          His name, and unambitiously relates
          How long, and by what kindly outward aids,
          And in what pure contentedness of mind,
          The sad privation was by him endured.
          --And yon tall pine-tree, whose composing sound
          Was wasted on the good Man's living ear,
          Hath now its own peculiar sanctity;
          And, at the touch of every wandering breeze,               480
          Murmurs, not idly, o'er his peaceful grave.

            Soul-cheering Light, most bountiful of things!
          Guide of our way, mysterious comforter!
          Whose sacred influence, spread through earth and heaven,
          We all too thanklessly participate,
          Thy gifts were utterly withheld from him
          Whose place of rest is near yon ivied porch.
          Yet, of the wild brooks ask if he complained;
          Ask of the channelled rivers if they held
          A safer, easier, more determined, course.                  490
          What terror doth it strike into the mind
          To think of one, blind and alone, advancing
          Straight toward some precipice's airy brink!
          But, timely warned, 'He' would have stayed his steps,
          Protected, say enlightened, by his ear;
          And on the very edge of vacancy
          Not more endangered than a man whose eye
          Beholds the gulf beneath.--No floweret blooms
          Throughout the lofty range of these rough hills,
          Nor in the woods, that could from him conceal              500
          Its birth-place; none whose figure did not live
          Upon his touch. The bowels of the earth
          Enriched with knowledge his industrious mind;
          The ocean paid him tribute from the stores
          Lodged in her bosom; and, by science led,
          His genius mounted to the plains of heaven.
          --Methinks I see him--how his eye-balls rolled,
          Beneath his ample brow, in darkness paired,--
          But each instinct with spirit; and the frame
          Of the whole countenance alive with thought,               510
          Fancy, and understanding; while the voice
          Discoursed of natural or moral truth
          With eloquence, and such authentic power,
          That, in his presence, humbler knowledge stood
          Abashed, and tender pity overawed."

            "A noble--and, to unreflecting minds,
          A marvellous spectacle," the Wanderer said,
          "Beings like these present! But proof abounds
          Upon the earth that faculties, which seem
          Extinguished, do not, 'therefore', cease to be.            520
          And to the mind among her powers of sense
          This transfer is permitted,--not alone
          That the bereft their recompense may win;
          But for remoter purposes of love
          And charity; nor last nor least for this,
          That to the imagination may be given
          A type and shadow of an awful truth;
          How, likewise, under sufferance divine,
          Darkness is banished from the realms of death,
          By man's imperishable spirit, quelled.                     530
          Unto the men who see not as we see
          Futurity was thought, in ancient times,
          To be laid open, and they prophesied.
          And know we not that from the blind have flowed
          The highest, holiest, raptures of the lyre;
          And wisdom married to immortal verse?"

            Among the humbler Worthies, at our feet
          Lying insensible to human praise,
          Love, or regret,--'whose' lineaments would next
          Have been portrayed, I guess not; but it chanced           540
          That, near the quiet churchyard where we sate,
          A team of horses, with a ponderous freight
          Pressing behind, adown a rugged slope,
          Whose sharp descent confounded their array,
          Came at that moment, ringing noisily.

            "Here," said the Pastor, "do we muse, and mourn
          The waste of death; and lo! the giant oak
          Stretched on his bier--that massy timber wain;
          Nor fail to note the Man who guides the team."

            He was a peasant of the lowest class:                    550
          Grey locks profusely round his temples hung
          In clustering curls, like ivy, which the bite
          Of winter cannot thin; the fresh air lodged
          Within his cheek, as light within a cloud;
          And he returned our greeting with a smile.
          When he had passed, the Solitary spake;
          "A Man he seems of cheerful yesterdays
          And confident to-morrows; with a face
          Not worldly-minded, for it bears too much
          Of Nature's impress,--gaiety and health,                   560
          Freedom and hope; but keen, withal, and shrewd.
          His gestures note,--and hark! his tones of voice
          Are all vivacious as his mien and looks."

            The Pastor answered: "You have read him well.
          Year after year is added to his store
          With 'silent' increase: summers, winters--past,
          Past or to come; yea, boldly might I say,
          Ten summers and ten winters of a space
          That lies beyond life's ordinary bounds,
          Upon his sprightly vigour cannot fix                       570
          The obligation of an anxious mind,
          A pride in having, or a fear to lose;
          Possessed like outskirts of some large domain,
          By any one more thought of than by him
          Who holds the land in fee, its careless lord!
          Yet is the creature rational, endowed
          With foresight; hears, too, every sabbath day,
          The christian promise with attentive ear;
          Nor will, I trust, the Majesty of Heaven
          Reject the incense offered up by him,                      580
          Though of the kind which beasts and birds present
          In grove or pasture; cheerfulness of soul,
          From trepidation and repining free.
          How many scrupulous worshippers fall down
          Upon their knees, and daily homage pay
          Less worthy, less religious even, than his!

            This qualified respect, the old Man's due,
          Is paid without reluctance; but in truth,"
          (Said the good Vicar with a fond half-smile)
          "I feel at times a motion of despite                       590
          Towards one, whose bold contrivances and skill,
          As you have seen, bear such conspicuous part
          In works of havoc; taking from these vales,
          One after one, their proudest ornaments.
          Full oft his doings leave me to deplore
          Tall ash-tree, sown by winds, by vapours nursed,
          In the dry crannies of the pendent rocks;
          Light birch, aloft upon the horizon's edge,
          A veil of glory for the ascending moon;
          And oak whose roots by noontide dew were damped,           600
          And on whose forehead inaccessible
          The raven lodged in safety.--Many a ship
          Launched into Morecamb-bay to 'him' hath owed
          Her strong knee-timbers, and the mast that bears
          The loftiest of her pendants; He, from park
          Or forest, fetched the enormous axle-tree
          That whirls (how slow itself!) ten thousand spindles:
          And the vast engine labouring in the mine,
          Content with meaner prowess, must have lacked
          The trunk and body of its marvellous strength,             610
          If his undaunted enterprise had failed
          Among the mountain coves.
                                     Yon household fir,
          A guardian planted to fence off the blast,
          But towering high the roof above, as if
          Its humble destination were forgot--
          That sycamore[1], which annually holds
          Within its shade, as in a stately tent
          On all sides open to the fanning breeze,
          A grave assemblage, seated while they shear
          The fleece-encumbered flock--the JOYFUL ELM,               620
          Around whose trunk the maidens dance in May--
          And the LORD'S OAK--would plead their several rights
          In vain, if he were master of their fate;
          His sentence to the axe would doom them all.
          But, green in age and lusty as he is,
          And promising to keep his hold on earth
          Less, as might seem, in rivalship with men
          Than with the forest's more enduring growth,
          His own appointed hour will come at last;
          And, like the haughty Spoilers of the world,               630
          This keen Destroyer, in his turn, must fall.

            Now from the living pass we once again:
          From Age," the Priest continued, "turn your thoughts;
          From Age, that often unlamented drops,
          And mark that daisied hillock, three spans long!
          --Seven lusty Sons sate daily round the board
          Of Gold-rill side; and, when the hope had ceased
          Of other progeny, a Daughter then
          Was given, the crowning bounty of the whole;
          And so acknowledged with a tremulous joy                   640
          Felt to the centre of that heavenly calm
          With which by nature every mother's soul
          Is stricken in the moment when her throes
          Are ended, and her ears have heard the cry
          Which tells her that a living child is born;
          And she lies conscious, in a blissful rest,
          That the dread storm is weathered by them both.

            The Father--him at this unlooked-for gift
          A bolder transport seizes. From the side
          Of his bright hearth, and from his open door,              650
          Day after day the gladness is diffused
          To all that come, almost to all that pass;
          Invited, summoned, to partake the cheer
          Spread on the never-empty board, and drink
          Health and good wishes to his new-born girl,
          From cups replenished by his joyous hand.
          --Those seven fair brothers variously were moved
          Each by the thoughts best suited to his years:
          But most of all and with most thankful mind
          The hoary grandsire felt himself enriched;                 660
          A happiness that ebbed not, but remained
          To fill the total measure of his soul!
          --From the low tenement, his own abode,
          Whither, as to a little private cell,
          He had withdrawn from bustle, care, and noise,
          To spend the sabbath of old age in peace,
          Once every day he duteously repaired
          To rock the cradle of the slumbering babe:
          For in that female infant's name he heard
          The silent name of his departed wife;                      670
          Heart-stirring music! hourly heard that name;
          Full blest he was, 'Another Margaret Green,'
          Oft did he say, 'was come to Gold-rill side.'

            Oh! pang unthought of, as the precious boon
          Itself had been unlooked-for; oh! dire stroke
          Of desolating anguish for them all!
          --Just as the Child could totter on the floor,
          And, by some friendly finger's help up-stayed,
          Range round the garden walk, while she perchance
          Was catching at some novelty of spring,                    680
          Ground-flower, or glossy insect from its cell
          Drawn by the sunshine--at that hopeful season
          The winds of March, smiting insidiously,
          Raised in the tender passage of the throat
          Viewless obstruction; whence, all unforewarned,
          The household lost their pride and soul's delight.
          --But time hath power to soften all regrets,
          And prayer and thought can bring to worst distress
          Due resignation. Therefore, though some tears
          Fail not to spring from either Parent's eye                690
          Oft as they hear of sorrow like their own,
          Yet this departed Little-one, too long
          The innocent troubler of their quiet, sleeps
          In what may now be called a peaceful bed.

            On a bright day--so calm and bright, it seemed
          To us, with our sad spirits, heavenly-fair--
          These mountains echoed to an unknown sound;
          A volley, thrice repeated o'er the Corse
          Let down into the hollow of that grave,
          Whose shelving sides are red with naked mould.             700
          Ye rains of April, duly wet this earth!
          Spare, burning sun of midsummer, these sods,
          That they may knit together, and therewith
          Our thoughts unite in kindred quietness!
          Nor so the Valley shall forget her loss.
          Dear Youth, by young and old alike beloved,
          To me as precious as my own!--Green herbs
          May creep (I wish that they would softly creep)
          Over thy last abode, and we may pass
          Reminded less imperiously of thee;--                       710
          The ridge itself may sink into the breast
          Of earth, the great abyss, and be no more;
          Yet shall not thy remembrance leave our hearts,
          Thy image disappear!
                                The Mountain-ash
          No eye can overlook, when 'mid a grove
          Of yet unfaded trees she lifts her head
          Decked with autumnal berries, that outshine
          Spring's richest blossoms; and ye may have marked,
          By a brook-side or solitary tarn,
          How she her station doth adorn: the pool                   720
          Glows at her feet, and all the gloomy rocks
          Are brightened round her. In his native vale
          Such and so glorious did this Youth appear;
          A sight that kindled pleasure in all hearts
          By his ingenuous beauty, by the gleam
          Of his fair eyes, by his capacious brow,
          By all the graces with which nature's hand
          Had lavishly arrayed him. As old bards
          Tell in their idle songs of wandering gods,
          Pan or Apollo, veiled in human form:                       730
          Yet, like the sweet-breathed violet of the shade
          Discovered in their own despite to sense
          Of mortals (if such fables without blame
          May find chance-mention on this sacred ground)
          So, through a simple rustic garb's disguise,
          And through the impediment of rural cares,
          In him revealed a scholar's genius shone;
          And so, not wholly hidden from men's sight,
          In him the spirit of a hero walked
          Our unpretending valley.--How the quoit                    740
          Whizzed from the Stripling's arm! If touched by him,
          The inglorious foot-ball mounted to the pitch
          Of the lark's flight,--or shaped a rainbow curve,
          Aloft, in prospect of the shouting field!
          The indefatigable fox had learned
          To dread his perseverance in the chase.
          With admiration would he lift his eyes
          To the wide-ruling eagle, and his hand
          Was loth to assault the majesty he loved:
          Else had the strongest fastnesses proved weak              750
          To guard the royal brood. The sailing glead,
          The wheeling swallow, and the darting snipe;
          The sportive sea-gull dancing with the waves,
          And cautious water-fowl, from distant climes,
          Fixed at their seat, the centre of the Mere;
          Were subject to young Oswald's steady aim,
          And lived by his forbearance.
                                         From the coast
          Of France a boastful Tyrant hurled his threats;
          Our Country marked the preparation vast
          Of hostile forces; and she called--with voice              760
          That filled her plains, that reached her utmost shores,
          And in remotest vales was heard--to arms!
          --Then, for the first time, here you might have seen
          The shepherd's grey to martial scarlet changed,
          That flashed uncouthly through the woods and fields.
          Ten hardy Striplings, all in bright attire,
          And graced with shining weapons, weekly marched,
          From this lone valley, to a central spot
          Where, in assemblage with the flower and choice
          Of the surrounding district, they might learn              770
          The rudiments of war; ten--hardy, strong,
          And valiant; but young Oswald, like a chief
          And yet a modest comrade, led them forth
          From their shy solitude, to face the world,
          With a gay confidence and seemly pride;
          Measuring the soil beneath their happy feet
          Like Youths released from labour, and yet bound
          To most laborious service, though to them
          A festival of unencumbered ease;
          The inner spirit keeping holiday,                          780
          Like vernal ground to sabbath sunshine left.

            Oft have I marked him, at some leisure hour,
          Stretched on the grass, or seated in the shade,
          Among his fellows, while an ample map
          Before their eyes lay carefully outspread,
          From which the gallant teacher would discourse,
          Now pointing this way, and now that.--'Here flows,'
          Thus would he say, 'the Rhine, that famous stream!
          'Eastward, the Danube toward this inland sea,
          'A mightier river, winds from realm to realm;              790
          'And, like a serpent, shows his glittering back
          'Bespotted--with innumerable isles:
          'Here reigns the Russian, there the Turk; observe
          'His capital city!' Thence, along a tract
          Of livelier interest to his hopes and fears,
          His finger moved, distinguishing the spots
          Where wide-spread conflict then most fiercely raged;
          Nor left unstigmatized those fatal fields
          On which the sons of mighty Germany
          Were taught a base submission.--'Here behold               800
          'A nobler race, the Switzers, and their land,
          'Vales deeper far than these of ours, huge woods,
          'And mountains white with everlasting snow!'
          --And, surely, he, that spake with kindling brow,
          Was a true patriot, hopeful as the best
          Of that young peasantry, who, in our days,
          Have fought and perished for Helvetia's rights--
          Ah, not in vain!--or those who, in old time,
          For work of happier issue, to the side
          Of Tell came trooping from a thousand huts,                810
          When he had risen alone! No braver Youth
          Descended from Judean heights, to march
          With righteous Joshua; nor appeared in arms
          When grove was felled, and altar was cast down,
          And Gideon blew the trumpet, soul-inflamed,
          And strong in hatred of idolatry."

            The Pastor, even as if by these last words
          Raised from his seat within the chosen shade,
          Moved toward the grave;--instinctively his steps
          We followed; and my voice with joy exclaimed:              820
          "Power to the Oppressors of the world is given,
          A might of which they dream not. Oh! the curse,
          To be the awakener of divinest thoughts,
          Father and founder of exalted deeds;
          And, to whole nations bound in servile straits,
          The liberal donor of capacities
          More than heroic! this to be, nor yet
          Have sense of one connatural wish, nor yet
          Deserve the least return of human thanks;
          Winning no recompense but deadly hate                      830
          With pity mixed, astonishment with scorn!"

            When this involuntary strain had ceased,
          The Pastor said: "So Providence is served;
          The forked weapon of the skies can send
          Illumination into deep, dark holds,
          Which the mild sunbeam hath not power to pierce.
          Ye Thrones that have defied remorse, and cast
          Pity away, soon shall ye quake with 'fear'!
          For, not unconscious of the mighty debt
          Which to outrageous wrong the sufferer owes,               840
          Europe, through all her habitable bounds,
          Is thirsting for 'their' overthrow, who yet
          Survive, as pagan temples stood of yore,
          By horror of their impious rites, preserved;
          Are still permitted to extend their pride,
          Like cedars on the top of Lebanon
          Darkening the sun.
                              But less impatient thoughts,
          And love 'all hoping and expecting all,'
          This hallowed grave demands, where rests in peace
          A humble champion of the better cause,                     850
          A Peasant-youth, so call him, for he asked
          No higher name; in whom our country showed,
          As in a favourite son, most beautiful.
          In spite of vice, and misery, and disease,
          Spread with the spreading of her wealthy arts,
          England, the ancient and the free, appeared
          In him to stand before my swimming eyes,
          Unconquerably virtuous and secure.
          --No more of this, lest I offend his dust:
          Short was his life, and a brief tale remains.              860

            One day--a summer's day of annual pomp
          And solemn chase--from morn to sultry noon
          His steps had followed, fleetest of the fleet,
          The red-deer driven along its native heights
          With cry of hound and horn; and, from that toil
          Returned with sinews weakened and relaxed,
          This generous Youth, too negligent of self,
          Plunged--'mid a gay and busy throng convened
          To wash the fleeces of his Father's flock--
          Into the chilling flood. Convulsions dire                  870
          Seized him, that self-same night; and through the space
          Of twelve ensuing days his frame was wrenched,
          Till nature rested from her work in death.
          To him, thus snatched away, his comrades paid
          A soldier's honours. At his funeral hour
          Bright was the sun, the sky a cloudless blue--
          A golden lustre slept upon the hills;
          And if by chance a stranger, wandering there,
          From some commanding eminence had looked
          Down on this spot, well pleased would he have seen         880
          A glittering spectacle; but every face
          Was pallid: seldom hath that eye been moist
          With tears, that wept not then; nor were the few,
          Who from their dwellings came not forth to join
          In this sad service, less disturbed than we.
          They started at the tributary peal
          Of instantaneous thunder, which announced,
          Through the still air, the closing of the Grave;
          And distant mountains echoed with a sound
          Of lamentation, never heard before!"                       890

            The Pastor ceased.--My venerable Friend
          Victoriously upraised his clear bright eye;
          And, when that eulogy was ended, stood
          Enrapt, as if his inward sense perceived
          The prolongation of some still response,
          Sent by the ancient Soul of this wide land,
          The Spirit of its mountains and its seas,
          Its cities, temples, fields, its awful power,
          Its rights and virtues--by that Deity
          Descending, and supporting his pure heart                  900
          With patriotic confidence and joy.
          And, at the last of those memorial words,
          The pining Solitary turned aside;
          Whether through manly instinct to conceal
          Tender emotions spreading from the heart
          To his worn cheek; or with uneasy shame
          For those cold humours of habitual spleen
          That, fondly seeking in dispraise of man
          Solace and self-excuse, had sometimes urged
          To self-abuse a not ineloquent tongue.                     910
          --Right toward the sacred Edifice his steps
          Had been directed; and we saw him now
          Intent upon a monumental stone,
          Whose uncouth form was grafted on the wall,
          Or rather seemed to have grown into the side
          Of the rude pile; as oft-times trunks of trees,
          Where nature works in wild and craggy spots,
          Are seen incorporate with the living rock--
          To endure for aye. The Vicar, taking note
          Of his employment, with a courteous smile                  920
                       "The sagest Antiquarian's eye
          That task would foil;" then, letting fall his voice
          While he advanced, thus spake: "Tradition tells
          That, in Eliza's golden days, a Knight
          Came on a war-horse sumptuously attired,
          And fixed his home in this sequestered vale.
          'Tis left untold if here he first drew breath,
          Or as a stranger reached this deep recess,
          Unknowing and unknown. A pleasing thought
          I sometimes entertain, that haply bound                    930
          To Scotland's court in service of his Queen,
          Or sent on mission to some northern Chief
          Of England's realm, this vale he might have seen
          With transient observation; and thence caught
          An image fair, which, brightening in his soul
          When joy of war and pride of chivalry
          Languished beneath accumulated years,
          Had power to draw him from the world, resolved
          To make that paradise his chosen home
          To which his peaceful fancy oft had turned.                940

            Vague thoughts are these; but, if belief may rest
          Upon unwritten story fondly traced
          From sire to son, in this obscure retreat
          The Knight arrived, with spear and shield, and borne
          Upon a Charger gorgeously bedecked
          With broidered housings. And the lofty Steed--
          His sole companion, and his faithful friend,
          Whom he, in gratitude, let loose to range
          In fertile pastures--was beheld with eyes
          Of admiration and delightful awe,                          950
          By those untravelled Dalesmen. With less pride,
          Yet free from touch of envious discontent,
          They saw a mansion at his bidding rise,
          Like a bright star, amid the lowly band
          Of their rude homesteads. Here the Warrior dwelt;
          And, in that mansion children of his own,
          Or kindred, gathered round him. As a tree
          That falls and disappears, the house is gone;
          And, through improvidence or want of love
          For ancient worth and honourable things,                   960
          The spear and shield are vanished, which the Knight
          Hung in his rustic hall. One ivied arch
          Myself have seen, a gateway, last remains
          Of that foundation in domestic care
          Raised by his hands. And now no trace is left
          Of the mild-hearted Champion, save this stone,
          Faithless memorial! and his family name
          Borne by yon clustering cottages, that sprang
          From out the ruins of his stately lodge:
          These, and the name and title at full length,--            970
          'Sir Alfred Irthing', with appropriate words
          Accompanied, still extant, in a wreath
          Or posy, girding round the several fronts
          Of three clear-sounding and harmonious bells,
          That in the steeple hang, his pious gift."

            "So fails, so languishes, grows dim, and dies,"
          The grey-haired Wanderer pensively exclaimed,
          "All that this world is proud of. From their spheres
          The stars of human glory are cast down;
          Perish the roses and the flowers of kings,[2]                 980
          Princes, and emperors, and the crowns and palms
          Of all the mighty, withered and consumed!
          Nor is power given to lowliest innocence
          Long to protect her own. The man himself
          Departs; and soon is spent the line of those
          Who, in the bodily image, in the mind,
          In heart or soul, in station or pursuit,
          Did most resemble him. Degrees and ranks,
          Fraternities and orders--heaping high
          New wealth upon the burthen of the old,                    990
          And placing trust in privilege confirmed
          And re-confirmed--are scoffed at with a smile
          Of greedy foretaste, from the secret stand
          Of Desolation, aimed: to slow decline
          These yield, and these to sudden overthrow:
          Their virtue, service, happiness, and state
          Expire; and nature's pleasant robe of green,
          Humanity's appointed shroud, enwraps
          Their monuments and their memory. The vast Frame
          Of social nature changes evermore                         1000
          Her organs and her members, with decay
          Restless, and restless generation, powers
          And functions dying and produced at need,--
          And by this law the mighty whole subsists:
          With an ascent and progress in the main;
          Yet, oh! how disproportioned to the hopes
          And expectations of self-flattering minds!

            The courteous Knight, whose bones are here interred,
          Lived in an age conspicuous as our own
          For strife and ferment in the minds of men;               1010
          Whence alteration in the forms of things,
          Various and vast. A memorable age!
          Which did to him assign a pensive lot--
          To linger 'mid the last of those bright clouds
          That, on the steady breeze of honour, sailed
          In long procession calm and beautiful.
          He who had seen his own bright order fade,
          And its devotion gradually decline,
          (While war, relinquishing the lance and shield,
          Her temper changed, and bowed to other laws)              1020
          Had also witnessed, in his morn of life,
          That violent commotion, which o'erthrew,
          In town and city and sequestered glen,
          Altar, and cross, and church of solemn roof,
          And old religious house--pile after pile;
          And shook their tenants out into the fields,
          Like wild beasts without home! Their hour was come;
          But why no softening thought of gratitude,
          No just remembrance, scruple, or wise doubt?
          Benevolence is mild; nor borrows help,                    1030
          Save at worst need, from bold impetuous force,
          Fitliest allied to anger and revenge.
          But Human-kind rejoices in the might
          Of mutability; and airy hopes,
          Dancing around her, hinder and disturb
          Those meditations of the soul that feed
          The retrospective virtues. Festive songs
          Break from the maddened nations at the sight
          Of sudden overthrow; and cold neglect
          Is the sure consequence of slow decay.                    1040

            Even," said the Wanderer, "as that courteous Knight,
          Bound by his vow to labour for redress
          Of all who suffer wrong, and to enact
          By sword and lance the law of gentleness,
          (If I may venture of myself to speak,
          Trusting that not incongruously I blend
          Low things with lofty) I too shall be doomed
          To outlive the kindly use and fair esteem
          Of the poor calling which my youth embraced
          With no unworthy prospect. But enough;                    1050
          --Thoughts crowd upon me--and 'twere seemlier now
          To stop, and yield our gracious Teacher thanks
          For the pathetic records which his voice
          Hath here delivered; words of heartfelt truth,
          Tending to patience when affliction strikes;
          To hope and love; to confident repose
          In God; and reverence for the dust of Man."

[1] 'That sycamore, which annually holds
Within its shade, as in a stately tent.'

"This Sycamore oft musical with Bees;
'Such Tents' the Patriarchs loved."
S.T. Coleridge.

[2] The "Transit gloria mundi" is finely expressed in the Introduction to the Foundation-charters of some of the ancient Abbeys. Some expressions here used are taken from that of the Abbey of St. Mary's, Furness, the translation of which is as follows:--

"Considering every day the uncertainty of life, that the roses and flowers of Kings, Emperors, and Dukes, and the crowns and palms of all the great, wither and decay; and that all things, with an uninterrupted course, tend to dissolution and death: I therefore," etc.

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Wordsworth, William. 1888. Complete Poetical Works.